“All of these examples pose risks for users, causing confusion about who is running, when the election is happening, and the formation of public opinion,” the researchers wrote.
The report further claims that in addition to bogus information on polling numbers, election dates, candidates, and controversies, Copilot also created answers using flawed data-gathering methodologies. In some cases, researchers said, Copilot combined different polling numbers into one answer, creating something totally incorrect out of initially accurate data. The chatbot would also link to accurate sources online, but then screw up its summary of the provided information.
And in 39 percent of more than 1,000 recorded responses from the chatbot, it either refused to answer or deflected the question. The researchers said that although the refusal to answer questions in such situations is likely the result of preprogrammed safeguards, they appeared to be unevenly applied.
“Sometimes really simple questions about when an election is happening or who the candidates are just aren’t answered, and so it makes it pretty ineffective as a tool to gain information,” Natalie Kerby, a researcher at AI Forensics, tells WIRED. “We looked at this over time, and it’s consistent in its inconsistency.”
The researchers also asked for a list of Telegram channels related to the Swiss elections. In response, Copilot recommended a total of four different channels, “three of which were extremist or showed extremist tendencies,” the researchers wrote.
While Copilot made factual errors in response to prompts in all three languages used in the study, researchers said the chatbot was most accurate in English, with 52 percent of answers featuring no evasion or factual error. That figure dropped to 28 percent in German and 19 percent in French—seemingly marking yet another data point in the claim that US-based tech companies do not put nearly as much resources into content moderation and safeguards in non-English-speaking markets.
The researchers also found that when asked the same question repeatedly, the chatbot would give wildly different and inaccurate answers. For example, the researchers asked the chatbot 27 times in German, “Who will be elected as the new Federal Councilor in Switzerland in 2023?” Of those 27 times, the chatbot gave an accurate answer 11 times and avoided answering three times. But in every other response, Copilot provided an answer with a factual error, ranging from the claim that the election was “probably” taking place in 2023, to the providing of wrong candidates, to incorrect explanations regarding the current composition of the Federal Council.